Saturday, 3 November 2018
Epigenetics Therapy in ovarian cancer
The malignant ovarian tumor has the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Epithelial ovarian disease (EOC) is the most widely recognized kind of ovarian tumor. By and large, the larger part of EOC patients are analyzed in cutting-edge organize illness, due to the non-particular indications normal for beginning period EOC and the absence of accessible EOC-particular screening biomarkers. Medications normally incorporate chemotherapy, radiation, hormone treatment or clinical preliminaries for cutting-edge drugs; be that as it may, the new field of epigenetics may give some plan to future growth end
The supplemented checkpoint inhibitors with epigenetic therapies that treat types of cancer by turning suppressed genes back on via mechanisms and enzymes like DNA Methylation and histone acetyltransferases (HATs). These genes have been silenced by either a presence of added methyl groups, or the chromatin has been wound too tightly around the histones. Like the checkpoint inhibitors, this method of treatment has also not been especially effective in treatment of ovarian cancer.
The specialists had treated two arrangements of malignancy cells with two distinctive epigenetic treatment drugs: one with 5-azacytidine (AZA), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor that expels methyl bunches from DNA, and the other with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), and an epigenetic protein that enables DNA to uncoil from histones. They at that point infused the mice with the pretreated tumor cells.
This disclosure suggests that the blend of medicines renews and arm the creature's safe framework to battle the disease, as opposed to having the medications acting specifically to murder the malignancies. In spite of the fact that this investigation is in its early stages, joining AZA with a checkpoint inhibitor is as of now being utilized clinical preliminaries to treat ladies with ovarian growth. “Combining epigenetic therapy and a checkpoint blocker lead to the greatest reduction in tumor burden and an increase in survival in our mouse model and may hold the greatest promise for our patients.”
Saturday, 20 October 2018
Eating Zinc Could Affect DNA Methylation and the Immune System
Zinc plays a role in a wide range of important processes like healing wounds, synthesizing proteins and DNA, and the division of cells. It’s even required to be able to taste and smell properly. Zinc is naturally found in meat, shellfish, and other foods that are high in protein. Not only are oysters low in calories and chock-full of minerals and vitamins, but they are also known to contain some of the highest amounts of zinc. Not getting enough of this important mineral could lead to chronic disease involved in inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Older adults are more likely to have these diseases because they’re more at risk for zinc deficiency. It’s also imperative to maintain a proper daily intake of zinc because the body does not have a specialized storage system for it.
When you take away zinc, the cells that control inflammation appear to activate and respond differently; this causes the cells to promote more inflammation. About 12 percent of individuals in the United States do not have enough zinc in their diets, as much as 40 percent of people 65 and older do not get the proper amount of zinc. Because older adults typically do not eat enough food containing zinc and their bodies do not seem to absorb or use zinc as well as younger individuals, they are more likely to develop zinc deficiency and inflammation-related disease. Decreasing zinc resulted in improper activation of immune cells and deregulations of a protein known as cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), which impacts inflammation in the cell.
Saturday, 22 September 2018
Human milk confers unique nutritional and non-nutritional benefits, enhancing a child’s growth and development, as well as overall health, not only in early life but also for the long-term and offering prevention against some diseases. An epigenetic mechanism is a biochemical alteration to the DNA that does not change the sequence but does influence gene expression. These epigenetic alterations are extraordinarily affected by nature and are heritable. The major epigenetic forms are DNA methylation, histone change, and chromatin remodelling.
4 main diseases and disorders that breast milk may epigenetically protect against
1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: This may be clarified by the gut microbiota which can be modified by numerous components in early age. At the point when babies are breastfed, human bosom drain parts advance more advantageous gut microorganisms, which control the statement of qualities engaged with assimilation, obstruction capacity, and generation of secretory IgA (sIgA). sIgA is the most copious class of counteracting agent in our living being and assumes a vital job in the resistant capacity of mucous layers and security against pathogenic living beings.
2. Disorders of the Immune System: Breastfeeding has been appeared to help anticipate diseases and other resistant related sicknesses, especially gastrointestinal contaminations and intense otitis media, regardless of whether the kid has hereditary diseases. Human milk contains oligosaccharides which advance more beneficial gut microorganisms which assume a main role in epigenetically programming the new-born child's safe phenotype and contamination defencelessness.
3. Obesity and Related Disorders: obesity is a multifactorial disease – it’s the result of the interaction between genetics, environment and individual lifestyles, including feeding practices during the early ages of life. Babies fed with artificial formula can develop intestinal dysbiosis which leads to an unhealthy epigenetic expression. It is well known that gut microbiota has an important role in human metabolism – an unbalanced microbiota would be a risk factor for a child developing obesity.
4. Cancer: Benefits of breastfeeding are not only limited to the breastfed child. Mothers can have a deep and relevant impact on their own health just by nursing their babies. Scientists have proposed several mechanisms that might explain this positive effect of nursing in breast-cancer risk reduction, such as hormonal changes breast cancer prevention via epigenetic mechanisms, which specific components of human milk are involved.
Monday, 27 August 2018
Epigenetic Changes Due to Aging May Lead to Cancer
Throughout our lives, all cells in our bodies experience a normal life cycle of growth, maturity, and death. During this time, our cells normally experience damage to DNA by normal functions of the metabolism, or exposure to certain environmental factors like UV light. Ordinarily, our body is able to repair the damage done to the DNA in order to restore healthy cell function. The older we get, the more DNA damage we experience, and if damaged DNA is unable to be repaired, the cells become more susceptible to continued, erratic cell division, which often results in cancer. The cells of the body undergo a general wearing out process known as cell senescence, in which the cell ceases to replicate and is programmed for death. Senescence is a healthy, highly regulated process, and is crucial in the protection against tumour-growth.
It was previously considered by scientists that cancer development arises from rogue damaged cells that escape the natural cell death process and continue on to divide and grow. But scientists discovered that epigenetics could play a large role in how normal cells can develop into tumour-promoting cells.
“Senescence is a very well-known, normal aging process that is actually an antitumor mechanism. It occurs when cells perceive an excess of DNA damage, when cells undergo too many cell divisions or when they experience cancer development-related stress. They focused their attention on DNA methylation patterns in the fibroblasts of human foreskin samples how it can disrupt normal cellular senescence, allowing the progression of tumour growth. DNA methylation is the epigenetic process that silences gene expression by adding methyl groups to the DNA sequence, making it an appropriate target for studying the healthy function of the cellular death process.The researchers also allowed a second group of healthy fibroblast cells to mature into natural cellular senescence, and observed the DNA methylation patterns in both groups
Friday, 17 August 2018
Vitamin D Adjusts Epigenetic Marks That Could Hinder a Baby’s Health
Even though it’s common for expectant mothers to have low vitamin D levels, it’s essential to the health and proper development of the baby. A low amount of vitamin D is associated with poor fetal growth, childhood obesity, bone density, and bone mineral content. Interestingly, key functions of the placenta – like transporting nutrients to the growing baby – are controlled by the expression of genes, which is mediated by vitamin D. Researchers have now discovered that this vitamin might epigenetically influence the functioning of the placenta via DNA methylation. The short-term exposure to vitamin D made any change to the epigenetic signature of placental villi, which are small, finger-like protrusions in the placenta that help to increase contact with maternal blood.
After obtaining ethical approval and informed consent, the researchers collected human placentas within 30 minutes of delivery. They cultured placental villi fragments in 25-hydroxyvitamin D for eight hours. Then, they measured genome-wide DNA methylation in order to identify sites that were altered due to the treatment of vitamin D. DNA methylation in humans, a well-known epigenetic mark, occurs at specific cytosine residues within CpG sites of DNA. CpG sites are particular regions of DNA where a cytosine and guanine nucleotide is separated by phosphate. Individuals can boost their vitamin D levels by eating foods that are rich in vitamin D and by getting a sensible amount of sun exposure.
Certain foods include salmon, herring, cod liver oil, mushrooms, egg yolks, and fortified drinks and food like milk, orange juice, and cereals. Supplements are also available, but receiving the proper dose is incredibly important, especially for expectant mothers. In light of these results, changes in certain DNA methylation pathways due to vitamin D could potentially affect the placenta in many ways. Although further research must be done to uncover the possible impact, this study poses an interesting look into the benefits of vitamin D and expands on the dangers of having too little of it. Although the risks children face resulting from vitamin D deficiency are well-documented, this study provides evidence for an underlying epigenetic mechanism that may be at play during pregnancy.
Tuesday, 14 August 2018
Breastfeeding has been numerous health benefits and reduced disease risk for the Child
Many people believe that breastfeeding is the best gift a mother can offer to her child. It has lots of benefits, not only because breast milk contains the right amount of nutrients, but also because it’s packed with lots of antibodies and biologically active compounds that plays a key role in boosting a baby’s immune system. We have already seen how maternal nutrition and lifestyle can shape the development and future health of a baby via epigenetic mechanisms. Among many postnatal factors that can contribute to determining lifelong health and disease through epigenetic mechanisms, infant feeding plays a key role, especially breastfeeding.
Breast milk has been shown to protect new-borns against many diseases commonly experienced during the first year of life and research has begun to make connections between the benefits of breastfeeding and epigenetics. In the spirit of World Breastfeeding week we’ll explore the health benefits of breastfeeding, the possible epigenetic effects, and its potential ability to protect against four major diseases. Human milk confers unique nutritional and non-nutritional benefits, enhancing a child’s growth and development, as well as overall health, not only in early life but also for the long-term, and offering prevention against some diseases.
Epigenetic Effects of Breastfeeding
With these health benefits in mind, researchers have been exploring the potential underlying epigenetic mechanisms that may be linked to the benefits of breastfeeding. An epigenetic mechanism is a biochemical alteration to the DNA that does not change the sequence but does influence gene expression. These epigenetic alterations are greatly influenced by the environment and are heritable. The major epigenetic processes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodelling. Whereas breastfeeding is restricted to the lactation period, continued consumption of cow’s milk results in persistent epigenetic up regulation of genes critically involved in the development of diseases of civilization such as diabesity, neurodegeneration, and cancer. We hypothesize that the same miRNAs that epigenetically increase lactation, up regulate gene expression of the milk recipient via milk-derived miRNAs.
Recently, studies have confirmed that breastfeeding reduces the risk of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in the first year; it also lowers the incidence of otitis media – a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear – and ear or throat infections.
Friday, 3 August 2018
Mediterranean Diet during Pregnancy Epigenetically Reduce a Child’s Disease Risk
The Mediterranean diet has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Research is now pointing to the epigenetic benefits abiding by a Mediterranean diet could have while pregnant. The main components of this healthy eating pattern might epigenetically protect the fetus from developing diseases later in life by adjusting what is called histone modifications. Researchers reviewed the potential epigenetic benefits of a Mediterranean diet and how it might protect a child from metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome, formerly known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of metabolic disorders which increases the risk of a patient developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.
To be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, a person must have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors. The risk factors include abdominal obesity, having excess fat in the stomach area and a large waistline, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, hypertension and high fasting blood sugar levels.
The likelihood of being diagnosed with metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight and obesity. More than one-third of adults and 17% of children and adolescents in are obese. As these numbers continue to increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will also increase.
In addition, eating certain foods while pregnant might also predispose children to develop disorders like ADHD. A high-fat, high-sugar diet during pregnancy has previously been connected to ADHD in children. And it doesn’t stop at mothers a father’s diet has also been shown to epigenetically influence his child’s mental fitness.
Similarly, there is strong evidence that epigenetic changes that occur during fetal development play a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Healthy eating patterns have been shown to decrease the chances of an adult developing metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have also demonstrated that healthy eating during pregnancy could protect the fetus from developing metabolic syndrome throughout its life through epigenetic changes that occur during development.
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